Grain amaranth (Maranthus.spp) is a general name of grain amaranth. According to plant taxonomy of Amaranthaceae (Amaranthceae), amaranth (Amaranthus) annual herb. Including red amaranth, Amaranthus hybridus, Oho, Amaranthus hypochondriacus and other varieties, the varieties introduced from abroad have K112, K459, K574, R104, Rl01l, R158, D88-1 etc.. Divided by use of grain amaranth amaranth, feed, vegetable amaranth, enjoying the amaranth, wild amaranth, is a new, high-quality, high yield, drought tolerance of grain, feed, food and ornamental and crop.
Grain amaranth plant is as high as 2 ~ 3 meters, roots, taproot stout, maximum depth of 2.45 meters, width of 1.5 meters of soil, stalk diameter 1.45--3.25 cm; leaf width, much branching; top with 30 ~ 70 cm large panicle, seed per spike can be more than 6 grains (Figure 4), known as the "forage giant". Under normal conditions, plant growth, photosynthetic efficiency high, with per mu of the seed amount only 50 grams, growth period of 120 to 130 days in the year; collect. After two and a half months to three months can blossom and bear fruit, with per mu grain amaranth can produce fresh leaves and stems (green feed) 6000 ~ 10000 kg (Figure 3), the other can produce seeds 100 to 200 kg / mu, up to a maximum of 400 kg / mu. According to the current market price of Amaranth Seed 40 yuan / kg, fresh stem leaf 0.10 yuan / kg, the output value of up to 6000 ~ 7000 yuan per mu. And with the heat, drought, waterlogging, salinity resistance, barren, easy to manage, even in the arid, barren land, low yield areas can normal growth, its economic, ecological and social benefits significant.
The nutritional value of grain amaranth
According to the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences analysis, not only has the physiological characteristics of grain amaranth is unique, and of good quality, high nutritional value, especially with the protein, lysine content is known for its high. Total nutrition value of grain amaranth is 1.66 times the sorghum and maize, which:
1, Grain amaranth leaves in seedling stage: dry matter, crude protein content as high as 18.8% ~ 21.8%, lysine 0.74%; mature leaf protein content is up to more than l8%.
2,Grain amaranth stalk: after the harvest of stem, leaf and panicle bran dry product contains 14.4% of crude protein, crude fat 0.76%, crude fiber 18.7%, nitrogen free extract 33.8%, crude ash 20%.
3,Grain amaranth seed: protein content is 16% ~ 18%, 30 ~ 50% higher than the average grain; fat content accounted for about 7%, 3 times of Maize (above, contains easily absorbed by the body, unsaturated fatty acids accounted for 75% of edible oil source is ideal for elderly in food); the average content of starch accounted for 60.16% (containing amylopectin 73.2% ~ 87.8%), red amaranth varieties such as R104 up to a maximum of 87.8%; lysine content of up to 1.01%, is 3 times 2 times, corn wheat; calcium content is 8.5 times 7 times, wheat corn; phosphorus content is about 2 times the general cereal crops; the other contains useful mineral elements, rich in B vitamins, vitamin P, vitamin E and natural pigment with anti-aging effect; recent studies have also found, with amaranth as main raw material, Chinese herbal medicine production of health food with the food and medicine has obvious hypoglycemic effect. New health food is nutrition therapy era. Some overseas scholars put the grain amaranth is called the improvement of modern food the most ideal nutrition, food crops that grain amaranth is a "human future".
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